This genealogy section includes Pedigree (Ancestor) Charts and Descendant Charts for the families. Due to the large number of names in the database it proves difficult to print one large chart. Therefore charts reflect the larger tree broken into separate branches. Charts include the names and dates known at this time. As with all family histories, information changes and events occur. Names and dates will be added or edited.
The Ancestor and Descendant Charts have been updated in March 2021. There are now 44 charts (previously 40 charts).
The Ancestor (Pedigree) Charts track the ancestors of the immigrants back several generations in Germany, Norway and Sweden (with one ancestor born in Denmark). Each chart will have a maximum of six generations. When seven or more generations have been identified in a lineage then these charts expand to two or three pages.
Seven of the families in these ancestor charts had two generations of immigrants (parents and child). In three of these families each immigrant will have a chart, with the more extensive lineage included with the parents' chars. For the other four families these ancestors are in one chart because known generations number six or less and can be efficiently included in one chart.
For easier reading, each Descendant Chart is generally one page and each chart includes 3 generations (individual with spouse, children, grandchildren). A few charts have 4 generations. The reader will have to look at more than one chart to track a specific family. Charts do not include names of people in the extended family born within the last 60 years.
Oldest Manckel/Mankel/Mankell name documented in the family tree: Hermann Manckel (born, c1660)
The following chart lists ancestors of Mankel family living in Niederasphe
Margarete Mankel Semus
Many Norwegian names in these charts include their farm names as a surname. For many centuries Norwegians had only one name -- their first name. Later families added the second name in patronymic form -- that is, if a man's first name was Halvor, his daughter was (firstname) Halvorsdatter and his son was (firstname) Halvorsson. In the 1870's Norway passed legislation which stated that women should use the masculine form for their patronymic. (Similar changes occurred in Sweden in 1901.)Therefore, Margit Tharaldsdatter became Margit Tharaldson. Those who lived in rural areas also used a third name to indicate where they lived -- the farm name. When people moved from one farm to another, their last name became the name of the new farm where they resided. It wasn't until after 1900 that legislation mandated that people must take permanent family names. Some took the name of the farm while others took the patronymic.
Some immigrants kept their patronymic name as their American surnames, such as Andrew Johnson. Some used farm names as their American surnames, such as Ole Hjelle. And to add to the confusion some used their patronymic names at times, and farm names at other times, as surnames: Sven Gunderson or Sven Borgen; Lars Christopherson or Lars Holter. Spelling adds yet another layer of confusion. Immigrants used both ethnic and americanized spellings: Kristofferson/Christofferson/Christopherson; Bastine/Bastina; Oskar/Oscar; Anders/Andrew. These charts and this website primarily use the americanized spelling for immigrants and their children.